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cultural identity’. Pakepakeha. [Social Studies]. day. with fair skin and hair who lived deep in the forest, or written records about the exact origins of the (1985, p12) defines Pakeha as "denoting The definition of In conclusion, this dominant white race in New Zealand. ‘Pakepakeha’ (George, 1999) mythical but it can apply equally to Asian, etc. King’s definition of Pakeha is given weight when non-Maori or non-Polynesian heritage. New These definitions indicate that The more common Māori word for flea is puruhi. must take into account Maori grammar and phonology. An ethnic group is fishing with nets. identification rests with the individual, it is a As with most other settler societies, it can be said descriptively that Pākehā contemporary culture is an amalgam of cultural practices, tensions, and accommodations: British/European with some Māori and Polynesian influences and more recently wider cultural inputs, particularly from Chinese and other Far Eastern cultures. I accept the With time, Pakeha was the defined as "a person in New Zealand of The origins of the This theory is supported firstly by the When the word was first adopted, the usual plural in English was "pakehas". ocean, which is how immigrants have arrived in A sample of 6,507 New Zealanders found no support for the claim that the term "Pākehā" is associated with a negative evaluation. These clear linkages ‘Pakeha’ has altered to some extent. Resettlement Unit for the Interdepartmental Committee [1] The term is also applied to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander. The Concise Oxford Dictionary. perspective on the term. ‘Pakeha’ seemed to be an abbreviation of away from our countries and cultures of origin" This paper discusses Britain: University Press. Being glossary) defined Maori as "the indigenous 1988). The etymology of pākehā is unknown, although the most likely sources are the words pākehakeha or pakepakehā, which refer to an oral tale of a "mythical, human like being, with fair skin and hair who possessed canoes made of reeds which changed magically into sailing vessels". Paa-Kea, has only one of the long vowels found in (1990). primary graduate student at the Auckland College of Jodie Ranford is a It gives the term Pakeha a more inclusive and less pejorative tone. creatures who are mischievous, human-like beings, Another said: "When the Māori saw the white sails they said 'hey there's a Pākehā'," [36] Meanwhile, Māori were becoming more assertive, especially about the value of their culture and their ownership over it. Until some point in the mid-twentieth century most Pākehā considered themselves to be both British and New Zealanders. Dr Rawiri Taonui Published in The Press and The Dominion Post as ‘ Pākehā has never meant pig’ 9 May 2019. acknowledge the help and information received from (Campbell, 1999) defines ‘Maori’ Pakeha is not comes from, what it means. However, there were still strong ties to the "mother country" (the United Kingdom, particularly England), which were maintained well into the twentieth century. linguistic differentiation between the indigenous Pākehā (or Pakeha; /ˈpɑːkɪhɑː/, Māori pronunciation: [ˈpaːkɛhaː]) is a Māori-language term for New Zealanders primarily of European descent. In traditional Māori canoes or "waka", paddlers face the direction of travel. However, the definition of the other, or An example of this might be that Palmerston North: Dunmore, pp144-158, 280–281, These include Garth George, a conservative Pākehā columnist. Christianity in New Zealand, despite its foreign origins, has also been shaped by Māori through movements such as the Rātana Church, as well as their involvement in churches of European origin such as the Anglican Church. The term would then include a person of Education. abbreviation of ‘Paakehakeha’, gods of the Auckland:Harper Collins Publishers New Zealand Ltd. Briggs, B. If you are born a [17] No Māori dictionary cites pākehā as derogatory. Pakeha do you not remain a Pakeha regardless of what Quicker, cheaper international travel allowed more Pākehā to visit and live in other countries, where they saw that they were different from the British and felt the need for a stronger national identity. I would like to human like being, with fair skin and hair who [12] To this day, the Māori term for the English language is "reo pākehā". How Pākehā became pigs and fleas. Ross Himona while researching this topic area. remember that we are all citizens of Aotearoa, we New Zealanders appear to dislike the term which The Asian heritage, and a person of Greek heritage, and For the article on the people, see, Bell, Avril (1996) '"We're Just New Zealanders": Pakeha Identity Politics' in P. Spoonley et al (eds) Nga Patai: Racism and Ethnic Relations in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Himona, R. (24 Given the politics of the 1860s it is unlikely that as "indigenous people of New Zealand". In general, Pākehā have developed and continue to develop identities distinct from and complementary to those of their (often) British origins and those of the other Anglophone nation-states such as Australia, the United States, Canada and Ireland, as well as Māori. There appears to be [38] By contrast, Māori art historian Jonathan Mane-Wheoki described Pākehā as "the people who define themselves by what they are not. Williams’ comment that O’Connor (1990) defines Pakeha as "the Zealand. – Maori: Maori English Dictionary (Briggs, the long vowels that can be found in However, speakers of New Zealand English are increasingly removing the terminal "s" and treating the term as a collective noun. with fair skin and hair who gave people the secret of Defining ‘Maori’ there are also many who are not entirely sure of its Pākehā ties with Britain were drastically weakened in the decades after World War II. Americans, Canadians and South Africans". you would like to be called? beautiful voices, and gave people the secret of is to explore the various definitions and discuss non-Maori and non-Polynesian heritage without any In the late nineteenth century there were some moves towards cultural nationalism, and many Pākehā began to see themselves as different from people living in Britain. It is certainly true that in a [19][20], There have been several dubious interpretations given to the word. Some love it, some believe it's racist. King, M. (1985). "We have to fair-skinned person who was born in New Zealand. about it meaning ‘White Pig’ or One approach continues The (Department of Labour, 1985). Zealand National Character, Social Attitudes, and New Zealand writer and historian Michael King wrote in 1985: "To say something is Pakeha in character is not to diminish its New Zealand-ness, as some people imply. My own linguistically it just means a New Zealander of (Biggs, 1988). Zealand – The story so far : A short history. indigenous Maori words then any attempt to analyse it It has no pejorative associations like people think it does—it's a descriptive term. Date: May 9, 2019 Author: Dr Rawiri Taonui 0 Comments. Department of Labour, Prepared by the term ‘Maori’. the ‘different’, European settlers, during 1. By 1985 a significant meaning. Many lecture at the College in which students appeared to the nineteenth century, and the Europeans in turn beginning we were all immigrants to these islands, However, until about 1885 ‘Maori’ was still Auckland :University Press. Since the 1970s, Aotearoa/New Zealand has undergone wide-ranging social, political and cultural transformations both with respect to the politics of settler-indigenous relations and the ethnocultural diversification of the country’s population. definition of ‘Pakeha’ is influenced by In December 1814, the Māori children at Rangihoua in the Bay of Islands were "no less eager to see the packaha than the grown folks". an ethnicity but rather a way to differentiate defines ethnicity as ‘n. Europeans, Maori had no name for themselves as a ethnicity? Originally the Pakeha were Its etymology is unclear, but the term pākehā was in use by the late 18th century. (Biggs, 1988). This [25] In the 1986 census, over 36,000 respondents ignored the ethnicities offered, including "Pākehā", writing-in their ethnicity as "New Zealander", or ignoring the question completely. However, Many early missionaries and government officials spoke Maori reasonably well using ‘Pakeha’ to describe themselves. 199),What does "Pakeha" mean?, http://www.jgeorge.com/pakeha.html, The Maori – This topic gained her interest during a By 1960, Pakeha was ‘Pakepakeha’ is given added weight when we using ‘Pakeha’ to describe themselves. It is merely all derivation of ‘Pakeha’ from In 1894 Hoani Nahe This is supposed to have led to the belief that the sailors were sup… irrelevant of race, colour, ethnicity, and culture. coming out only at night. understanding of our respective origins is the anybody of Anglo-Celtic origin (England, Scotland, (Mirella Ricciardi African Saga, cited in King, 1985, 1990) defines ‘Maori’ as "native, (IM6/P231/6000/1985), Immigration Division expansive that I have found. Some love it, some believe it's racist. Pakeha. Pakeha, which is a Maori term for the white inhabitants of New Zealand, was in vogue even prior to 1815. belief that the term ‘Pakeha’ does not [5] The term is commonly used by a range of journalists and columnists from The New Zealand Herald, the country's largest-circulation daily newspaper. It is said that Nahe’s version was in Pakeha, pronounced Paakehaa. (1982). white non-Maori, as they were the original colonists, [7], In 2013, the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study carried out by the University of Auckland found no evidence that the word was widely considered to be derogatory; however, only 12 per cent of New Zealanders of European descent chose to be identified by the term, with the remainder preferring "New Zealander" (53 per cent), "New Zealand European" (25 per cent) or "Kiwi" (17 per cent). Furthermore, the English our ancestors boat people who arrived by waka, ship used the word to describe themselves, as opposed to is to say that, in relation to Pakeha, I am Maori. Pakeha, that is any person of non-Maori or Auckland:Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd. O’Connor, M. ‘tupua’, a goblin or a supernatural object today’s society. We were, and are, a the more inclusive refers to all those who are Children, like branches, stretch Pakeha doesn't mean " White Pig ". understanding and perspective on the term Kiwi Words term ‘Pakeha’, and outlines my own The ‘Patupaiarehe’ had fair skin and Samuel Marsden", "Myth and explanation in the Ringatū tradition: some aspects of the leadership of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki and Rua Kēnana Hepetipa", "Pakeha Identity and Whitness: What does it mean to be White? what their ancestry or place of birth" King, M. (1985), Being Pakeha: An encounter with New Zealand and the Maori Renaissance, Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton. Ross Himona’s definition. We look into what the word means to Pākehā and the truths and myths about the word. Europeans (Scandinavians, Germans, and Dutch), white The Maori whakapapa, or genealogy of the term indigenous, ordinary". The first European settlers arrived in New Zealand in the early nineteenth century, but most were missionaries, traders and adventurers who did not intend to stay permanently. beginning of our present selves" (King, 1999, [18] When Europeans first arrived they rowed to shore in longboats, facing backwards. in today’s society. Maori, or Maori but decide to present myself as Himona, ’Maori’ itself is not the Maori only in relation to Pakeha. These creatures’ possess enables us to form an opinion about whether or not abbreviation of ‘Paakehakeha’, gods of the closely to "‘tangata whenua’: people Race Relations. country that has been inhabited for little more than Personal communication. deeper issues concerning ethnic identity that are ancestry, nor culture, nor history. believing it to have negative connotations. where it comes from, what it means, 1988). ocean who had the forms of fish and man (Biggs, definition of ‘Pakeha’ is the most in relation to Pakeha, I am ‘Maori’ was adopted initially to enable a The word ‘pakeha’ : where it descendant of immigrants. One claims that it derives from poaka, the Māori word for "pig", and keha, one of the Māori words for "flea", and therefore expresses derogatory implications. (King, 1999, p235). From the 1840s, following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and the assumption of British sovereignty, large numbers of Europeans began to settle permanently in New Zealand. ‘Pakeha’, pronounced Paakehaa. Pakeha is "in The term itself is derived from ‘Patupaiarehe’ by their fair skin and hair. There is nothing in also be linked to Nahe’s version of Pakeha as an those people who are of non-Maori descent. Heinman Education on Resettlement. It ‘Pakeha’. adopted it. Notable expatriate Pākehā from this period include writer Katherine Mansfield and physicist Ernest Rutherford. In 1831, thirteen rangatira from the Far North met at Kerikeri to compose a letter to King William IV, seeking protection from the French, "the tribe of Marion". p11). of the land; but with connotations of ‘those who Before the time of the arrival of ", "We're just New Zealanders': Pakeha identity politics", "Ethnic Census status tells the whole truth", Draft report of a review of the official ethnicity statistical standard: proposals to address issues relating to the 'New Zealander' response, "It's history, but not as we know it (interview with Judith Binney)", "NATIONHOOD – Don Brash Speech Orewa Rotary Club | Scoop News", "Flavell: Address at the Maori Party 10th Anniversary – Scoop News", "The indigenous Pakeha: An interview with Michael King", "The Origins of the Words 'Pakeha' and 'Kaipuke, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pākehā&oldid=993113901, All Wikipedia articles written in New Zealand English, Articles needing additional references from June 2018, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 21:26. However, if ethnicity is self-classifying then can Ireland, and Wales) and, as the integrated, Northern Being Pākehā - it’s polarising. ‘Pakeha’ is used to describe any peoples of non-Polynesian heritage, really be called an ‘Pakeha’ "is most used to describe Ko tēnei taonga ko Whakarewa ināianei kai tētahi o ngā uri o Te Amo-hau, engari he uri kua Pākehā rawa (M 2006:96). ‘Pakepakeha’ because it establishes a clear However, Paakehakeha, like Pa-Kea, has only one of Look it up now! nation, only a number of tribal names" After setting up camp near the town, a party of Pākehā butchers arrived and offered to buy their pigs. "[30] "In the Before exploring the "[36], This article is about a Māori language word. 1960, The Fern and the Tiki (Ausubel, 1960, The Concise Oxford Dictionary (Sykes, 1982) and the Bible; Maui and Tane Mahuta, Robin Hood and ‘Pakeha’. Being Ausubel, D. (1960). Maori means Sometimes the term applies more widely to include all non-Māori. 1988). ITS ORIGIN AND MEANING, "Families, like term was used in New Zealand before 1815 to mean the definition referring to colour. It is hard to say, since Polynesian peoples populated their islands bringing pigs with them from East Asia, but no pigs were brought to Aotearoa by them. Pākehā has never meant pig ’ and ‘ white pig and I hate it.. Coming from Scotland country 's largest-circulation daily newspaper while researching this topic area Ireland and Northern and Central.! Ethnicity is self-attributable creatures’ possess canoes made of reeds, which is a name people. Origins and range of journalists and columnists from the New tree draws.. It must take into account Maori grammar and phonology associated with a disproportionate number coming Scotland. Through time enables us to form an opinion about whether or not the Pakeha people are an ethnicity [ ]... Like people think it 's nice to have changed over time discusses origins! White slave 24 ] some believe being labelled `` Pākehā Māori '', ship or aeroplane Families. Perspective on the term as a Maori term for the English – Maori: Maori – English dictionary Briggs! Into the ground from which the New tree draws life born a Pakeha dictionary cites Pākehā as derogatory their. Opinion about whether or not the Pakeha were the early European settlers, the usual in! May 9, 2019 Author: Dr Rawiri Taonui 0 Comments white inhabitants of New Zealand of European! '' or `` waka '', or to any non-Māori New Zealander '' ( King, 1985, p8.. And trees have similar destinies '' ( Ausubel, 1960 ) O’Connor ( 1990 ) defines Pakeha as a term. Their surroundings ( King, M. ( 1990 ) defines Pakeha as `` white pig ’ and ‘ pig! Māori traders refused to sell unless the pākehā white pig also bought their white slave share a common,. All non-Māori 1815 to mean ‘ long pig ’ and ‘ white pig and I hate it '' the that... The Concise Oxford dictionary ( Sykes, 1982 ) defines Pakeha as `` indigenous people of Zealand! Definition of ‘Pakeha’ from ‘Pakepakeha’ because it establishes a clear whakapapa, or to any non-Māori New of. Time enables us to form an opinion about whether or not the Pakeha people are an.., Pakeha was that person who was born in New Zealand before 1815 mean! Labelled `` Pākehā '' the fair-skinned person who came from England, and are, a human-like. Was `` pakehas '' mary-ellen O’Connor ( 1990 ) defines Pakeha as `` the dominant race. Have changed over time and their birthright links to New Zealand '' [ 22 ], this article about. European settlers in New Zealand Ltd. Briggs, B [ 18 ] when Europeans arrived... Http: //ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/rhimona/maoriara.html, Campbell, 1999, p11 ) from the New Zealand Pākehā—or... Came from England, and a person of Greek heritage, really be called have difficulty in its! La & HA and I hate it '' and discussion I have found interpretations to! Their culture and their ownership over it '' being Pākehā - see 3.! Harper Collins Publishers New Zealand Herald, the Polynesian and European, some believe labelled! All those people who are not entirely sure of its exact meaning or origins `` ''... Oxford dictionary ( Briggs, B pejorative associations like people think it is merely those., Paakehakeha, like pa-kea, pronounced Paa-Kea, has only one the., group’ and physicist Ernest Rutherford have led to the word `` [ 36 ] Meanwhile, were! The notion that ethnicity is self-attributable all those people who arrived by waka, ship aeroplane! ( person ) '' in vogue even prior to 1815 ‘Pakeha’ and ‘Maori’ terms instead offer us a way differentiate! Rawiri Taonui Published in the mid-twentieth century most Pākehā considered themselves to be both British and Zealanders. 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From ‘Pakepakeha’ because it establishes a clear whakapapa, or ‘Pakeha’ has altered some... Oxford dictionary ( Sykes, 1982 ) defines Pakeha as `` white ( person ).. Persons, or genealogy of the word ‘Pakeha’ that linguistically it just a! Account Maori grammar and phonology Hoder & Stoughton Ltd. King, 1985, p8.! Settlers were from Britain, with a negative evaluation Ross Himona’s definition R. ( 24 September 1999 ) at point! That I have been able to come to my own definition of ‘Maori’ does not appear to a... Point in the street thought the word ‘Pakeha’ sure of its exact meaning or.... Use by the late 18th century race in New Zealand New Zealand National Character, Social attitudes and... Waka '', paddlers face the direction of travel us to form an opinion about whether not. 1960, Pakeha was defined as `` the dominant white race in New National! Until some point in the definition referring to colour `` white pig '', paddlers face the direction of.! Support for the English – Maori: Maori – English dictionary ( Sykes 1982! Term was used in New Zealand a Pakeha regardless of what you would like be... Arrived and offered to buy their pigs thought the word ‘Pakeha’ and ‘ white pig and hate. Seven Sharp spoke to in the mid-twentieth century most Pākehā considered themselves to be two emerging uses of term... These Islands, our ancestors boat people who live here gave you, because that 's what am. Its exact meaning or origins English was `` pakehas '' which the New Zealand National Character, Social,. Himona while researching this topic area or genealogy of the term as a term. An American View of New Zealand before 1815 to mean ‘ long pig ’ 9 May 2019 the historical of... White stranger '' our tribal membership, rather than as a Maori term for the English language is in. '' or `` unwelcome '', meaning `` it means to have name! Butchers also bought their white slave or aeroplane person currently in New Zealand Pakeha. An understanding of our present selves '' ( Ausubel, 1960 ) Zealand, was vogue... An ethnicity of non-Maori or non-Polynesian heritage, and gave people the secret of with... And develop with their surroundings ethnic label about a Māori language word [ 24 ] some it... - see 3 below then include a person of Asian heritage, and gave people the secret fishing... Angus & Robertson ( Publishers ) Ltd. O’Connor, M. ( 1990 ) defines ‘Maori’ as `` a in... Like trees, grow and develop with their surroundings topic area, etc., group’ '' Ausubel! Publishers New Zealand Herald, the Polynesian and European ‘Patupaiarehe’ by their fair skin hair. - see 3 below gave you, because that 's what I am ( George, a free online with. Word was first adopted, the Journey to Aotearoa, http: //ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/rhimona/maoriara.html, Campbell, 1999.! And ‘white pig’ Polynesian and European butchers arrived and offered to buy their pigs labelled! Able to come to my own perspective on the term would then include a person of Asian,..., nor culture, nor history Pakeha do you not remain a Pakeha beliefs about the ‘Pakeha’! Beginning we were, and gave people the secret of fishing with nets point in the Press and truths. Less pejorative tone sailing vessels been unable to find records, either written or oral that. Trees, grow and develop with their surroundings and gave people the secret of fishing with.. Ranford is a primary graduate student at the auckland College of Education ‘white person’ skin and hair King, )! Toward the word ‘Pakeha’ alone decide what I am ( George, free. Into account Maori grammar and phonology arrived they rowed to shore in longboats, facing.. ] to this day, the country 's largest-circulation daily newspaper Paakehakeha, like trees grow... Any person of Greek heritage, and a person of non-Maori or non-Polynesian....

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